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Banking system and its development in the period of transition to the market

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06.01.2019, 10:47
Banks - one of the central components of the system of market structures. The development of their activities - a prerequisite of creating real market mechanics s ma. Process of economic transformation began with the reform in banco tion system. This sphere dynamic ra s Viva today.

For a long time, banks were public authorities and acted on d tion of "supporting structures" administrative-command system of economic management. As a result, business banking in the country and lost Traditional tion and experience of Russian banks. Today we have to catch up. Necessary in a short time to reach the level of contemporary world-class organization of the bank in case ray.

Formation of the market and market infrastructure, new mechanisms mouth and updating of economic relations and the development of entrepreneurship and competition, increase the sovereignty of the republics require the development of the theory of economic risks, methods of assessment and management at all levels of management: the country, the national, regional, local, as well as at the level of each business unit, regardless of the type and form of prop t vennosti.

The leading role in solving these problems should belong ba n banking system. This is determined by the increasing role of banks and credit relations in an unstable economy and transition. Banks not only form of loan capital markets, securities, foreign exchange market, participate in the establishment and functioning of commodity exchanges and new x about tural structures, but essentially, are the sole owner of n e necessary information on the financial condition of enterprises and organizations, conjuncture commodity, loan, and currency markets, economic pos e SRI region, republic, country. The latter indicates the importance of the study of the development of e banks foreign and domestic commercial and political risks of their clients. This is all the more appropriate that at this stage there are plaques and enabling environment for the establishment and improvement of partnerships hozyays t sponding subjects with banks to strengthen their mutual responsibility and co n trol.

The guiding principle in the commercial banks in the market yavl I etsya pursuit of greater profits. It limits the possibility of incurring losses Stu. Risk is monetary value of probabilistic events, leading to losses. The higher the risks, the higher the chance to make a profit. Risks are formed on the deviation from the actual data with today's evaluation of the standing and future development. These deviations can be positive and neg a tive. In the first case we are talking about the chances of making a profit, while the second - the risks. Every chance to make a profit on the costs against the possibility of losses.

Thus, you can only make a profit if possible incur losses (risks) will be provided in advance (suspended) and insure and us. Therefore, the problem of economic risks in the commercial ba n Cove should be given considerable attention. The main ones include: ra s processing classification of bank risk assessment framework and methods of calculation of eq nomic and political and other risks of the bank, the individual borrower or a group of enterprises, industry, rep faces b, country.

1.1 COMMERCIAL BANKS AS PRIMARY SEGMENT MARKET ECONOMY

Russia's banking system - one of the fastest growing with e to then ditch about techestvennoy economy, the transition to market relations, to that rum occurred most rapidly. For the second n about half of the program in 1990 was almost to a system vidirovana specialized state banks, and the beginning of 1991 mainly completed the formation of a two-tier banking system: Central Bank - commercial e ba n ki.

In light of the current problems of the Russian economy, associated with e tion overcome the crisis and inflation n processes, increased inv e vestment and credit activities, cos e rshenstvovaniem organization of settlements in the economy and stabilize c iey national currency, accelerating the formation of e ciently function f n ioniruyuschey banking system capable mobiles and u uw financial resources and their concentration on priorities structure t urn per e construction economy has neocene e nimuyu practice t ich e Skuju stamp and bridges.

Practical district of miles of the banking system in eq on omy national ho ture, related Ryno h governmental relations objectified e it possible that it operates in state in the payment system and states calculation is s; pain w th part of its commercial e sd lok carries through deposits, investments and credit operations; along with others from financial intermediaries gimi savings banks send e of us e tion to businesses and industrial structures. At the same time, the effective t ivnost impl e s t ted investment funds largely depends on cn lities most of the banking system to direct these funds precisely because zae m schikam who will find ways to optimal and efficient Run on lzovaniya. Comm e rcheskie banks, acting in accordance with the monetary policy of the State to regulate movement den e n tighteners on currents, slowing them about about a company, emissions, total weight including the amount of cash in circulation. Stabilisation of money growth - a pledge Redeye e m of those types of inflation, an e sintered constant price level at which the market-temperature e ystvuyut on the economy of the economy of the most effective time used.

The modern banking system - is the sphere of services to its diverse climate e ntam - on t traditional deposit and loan and cash operations, define ni base their banking, to new forms of monetary and financial instruments used by banking institutions (leasing, F to then the ring, trust and so on).

Realizing banking, reaching their coherence and balance of the STI, commercial banks on e spechivayut thus its stability endowed w particular, yield, stability of the system in the market on t e s burden. All aspects and activities of commercial banks combined exercise unified strategy and inventive bank de l th, n fir which - to achieve a return on STI and liquidity. This integrated performance criteria and n and reliability of commercial banks, depending both on their on the floor and tics associated with the draw e tion of financial resources (management ALMC) and the policy of profitable posted e u e of bank funds in sf e tures of credit and investment systems (active management op e -talkies). These two aspects of the activities of commercial banks are interconnected, mutually imozavisimy, but at the same time and are mutually exclusive. If the bank in its de I t e tivity relies on getting quick and high returns on active operations, thereby it loses its liquidity, exposing themselves to the risk of becoming insolvent and vposl e dstvii possible bankrupt and then m Providing the same high level of its e th Liquidity ITY, bank, tend to lose profitability.

In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation is to bank m mercial uchre Well denie created to raise funds from jurid and iCal and individuals and placing them on his behalf under conditions of return t particular, payment, and maturity, as well as perform other banking transactions . On the one hand, the bank, as well as any direct e dpriyatie, created to meet the interests of the bank's owners (shareholders or individual) and society n tion interests (clients - legal entities and individuals, TS w ivaemyh bank). On the other hand, the bank is a special kind of company that forms a body and movement exercises and loan capital, ensuring profits whether s own bank n nicks.

Worldwide, the commercial banks are the most important link of the banking system, the main part of concentrating credit resources and implementing wide on cue dia n azone banking and financial services for legal and physical and entities. They represent Tue about swarm level of the banking system after Mr. Tse Central (state , national tion s) banks.

Formation of the banking syst e we coo t The associated developed market economy in Russia began in 1987 and was accompanied by a further increase in the number of commercial banks: nach.1992 city - 1360 KB 1993 - KB 1769, the end of 1993 - 1877 KB, beg. 1995 - 2600 KB. Crisis in the summer of 1995 - the crisis in the interbank market (MMM, etc.) touched small regional banks, and then the wave of the crisis, "covered" and large banks SVKB, INKOMBANK, Tokobank. Reducing the number of regional banks. Worsening economic crisis KB combine to create a holding. On nach.1996 city - 2079 KB, nach.1997 of KB-2024, y-1764 kon.1997 KB, nach.1998 of KB-1697, y-1598 ser.1998 KB, 01.07.99 - 1401 KB. Increasing number of cases of withdrawal.

Commercial banks can be classified into a number of grounds. Prina d sories authorized ka n Itala Bank and its method of formation determine the type of bank. By the nature of the property distinguished public banks, sharehold of Nurney, cooperative, private, municipal, and mixed. In industrialized countries, the predominant form of ownership of commercial banks is a shareholder p tion.

Joint-stock banks in Russia are in the form of a joint stock company s indoor and outdoor types. Entry of the Shareholders shall have those n the purchase of shares. As shareholders are legal entities and individuals, including the Institute of strange.

Most commercial used and nkov with z given by equity contributions and inaugural teley (shareholders) as a limited liability partnership. Memb and kami such bank are legal and physical persons who bear responsibility for tons on its obligations with all their property. The number of joint-stock commercial banks increased used of Leia than doubled and amounted to 1.07.99, 37% of their total number. Private banks are banks, cos d Data is based on the capital of individuals in their Russian ca about was 1% of the total ba n Cove.

By types of operations are distinguished commercial banks - the universal and c e ized. Modern banks can t make a wide range of operations and provide a variety of services, which seek to expand the list. This determines the uni sal character of the bank. In Russia, the function p Univ sebaceous banks - credit institutions with cross-sectoral multidisciplinary field of activity, which can be about t bear, for example, Unicombank, Russian National Bank, Bank Mosbiznes etc. However, the bank may have a specialization that increases effektivnos be the implementation of individual operations. Functional specialization distinguish banks rec n struction and development, investment, un on technoy, export-import, BEAC e liary.

On a territorial basis distinguish banks Intern about dnye, the Republicans and whether central, regional and service NESCO l ko regions. By reflecting on the left orientation banks classified for industrial, agricultural t governmental, construction, trade. For example, in Russia it Dalrybbank, CB "IB Entrepreneurship Support" CB "Energobank" WITH KB social sphere "Conti" , CB "Oil" AB "Metallurg" KB "Gazprombank", etc.

In modern conditions the influence of banks on the economy. S figures completely credit institutions is not limited accumulation and accommodate the growing mass d enezhnyh funds companies, enterprises and the population. They contribute to the accumulation of capital, not tons of lko actively interfering in all aspects of economic life, but also directly involved in the activities of operating capital or exercising control over it. Thanks kam ba n the mechanism of distribution and redistribution of capital and areas of traslyam proi s duction, which is largely providing e t development of peoples d tion economy, depending on the objective needs of production. Additional funding for ex tra n about needs of industrial, transit from the port, agriculture investment, expand production, the banks they are e opportunity to influence the creation of a progressive national reproductive structure of x ture.
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